In 1990, UNDP’s first global Human Development Report (HDR) introduced the Human Development Approach as a new way for understanding and advancing human well-being. The vision of that first HDR was to see development as a “process of enlarging people’s choices”. By putting the lives of the people at the centre of development and economic thinking, that report and those that followed brought a revolutionary change in the conceptualization of development and the way world leaders consider poverty and injustice. During the past 25 years, the global Human Development Reports have been complemented by over three dozen regional and subregional and more than 700 national HDRs
Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Services in Tanzania: Access, Policy Trends, and Financing By Flora Kessy and Richard Mahali
THDR 2017: Background Paper No.11 (Published in 2016)
The water and sanitation sector in Tanzania has been evolving rapidly in past years given the priority it has received in the development agenda, at least since the inception of poverty reduction strategies where this sector was one of the priorities for poverty reduction. Given this policy focus, several reforms to strengthen the sector’s performance have been underway in order to achieve key sector targets, including increasing rural and urban water supply service coverage from 51% and 68% respectively in 2000 to 90% and 95% respectively...
Education foundations of development of skills and productive capacities By Suleman Sumra and Joviter Katabaro
THDR 2017: Background Paper No.10 (Published in 2016)
Tanzania has committed to becoming a middle income country by 2025, as envisaged in Tanzania Vision 2025, through industrialisation. Prior to colonisation Tanzania had developed nascent industries in such areas as textiles, iron smelting, farming tools, pottery and furniture making. Through apprenticeship, people gained the skills necessary for producing goods that the societies at the time required. Colonialism brought an end to production of various items in the country through importation of cheap goods. Industrial development ...
Social protection: Safety Net or Vehicle for Transformation? By Flora Myamba and Sheshangai Kaniki
THDR 2017: Background Paper No.9 (Published in 2016)
This paper makes use of existing literature and primary data to conceptualize social protection from both local and international perspectives. Building from this conceptualization, the paper presents a framework for understanding social protection, highlighting the need for a comprehensive social protection system providing not only social assistance and contributory pensions, but also social service and labour policies. The authors move on to focus the discussion on the evidenced impact of contributory and social assistance ...
Health as a Productive Sector By Maureen Mackintosh and Paula Tibandebage
THDR 2017: Background Paper No.8 (Published in 2016)
Health care is often represented as a purely “social” sector, implying that health care expenditure is a burden on the economy. We argue in this paper that on the contrary, health care is economically productive, and that health care in Tanzania could be much more economically and socially productive if health policy and industrial policy were more closely integrated. Increasing the depth and breadth of domestic economic linkages between the health services and industrial and commercial suppliers within the Tanzanian economy can...
Social Policy, Gender and Labour By Godius Kahyarara, Razack Lokina & Joyce Nyoni
The paper focuses on the interface between gender, the Tanzanian labour market and social policies. Social policies are seen to influence men and women differently given the prevailing gender dynamics. The paper explores issues emerging over time in the labour market and how the observed features are shaped or influenced by different national social policies. Key issues raised in the paper are the changing nature of the Tanzanian labour market and the gendered nature of the transformation in light of the various established social policies...
Social Policy in Historical Perspective in Tanzania By Jehovaness Aikaeli and Humphrey Moshi
THDR 2017: Background Paper No. 6 (Published in 2016)
Social provisioning is a critical ingredient of human development and thus inextricably linked to economic development. With this understanding in mind, this chapter seeks to analyse, historically, the development of social provisioning in Tanzania by identifying the economic, political and social drivers which led to shifts in prioritization of either human development (social provisioning) or economic development issues in the country’s socio-economic planning, policy and institutional frameworks. The analysis shows clearly that the main drivers of the shifts in priority setting ranged from the adopted development paradigm cum ideological orientation, availability of financial resources, policies of multilateral financial institutions, namely the World...
Aid Dependency in Financing Space for Social Provisioning in Tanzania: A Macroeconomic Perspective Marc Wuyts, Desmond Mushi and Tausi Kida
THDR 2017: Background Paper No. 5 (Published in 2016)
This paper seeks to analyse, conceptually as well as empirically, the nature of aid dependency in Tanzania, particularly within the light of the Government of Tanzania’s stated objective of progressively phasing out aid dependency in the future. In this paper we have argued that, historically, there have been major shifts in the emphases in the nature of aid policies away from aid as direct investment support towards aid as support for poverty reduction leading to greater diversity in the modalities through which aid is channelled. Our analysis focuses on the recent decade that witnessed the change from the National Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty (MKUKUTA) as the dominant macro policy framework to its merger and integration within the Five Years Development Planning (FYDP) with its explicit emphasis on industrialisation ...
Situating Social Policy in Social Economic Transformation: A Conceptual Framework By Marc Wuyts and Hazel Gray
THDR 2017: Background Paper No. 4 (Published in 2016)
The purpose of this paper is to provide a conceptual framework that situates social policy within a framework of economic transformation in Tanzania. The paper starts by setting out the common economic arguments about the role of social policy in economic development, and examines the arguments that social policies should only come into focus after a country has attained a certain level of wealth. The paper then goes on to demonstrate that the separation of social and economic policies leads to weaknesses within the policy planning process.
Population Dynamics and Social Policy By Haidari Amani & Ahmed Makbel
THDR 2017: Background Paper No. 3 (Published in 2016)
This background paper provides an update on the status of population dynamics and its implication for social policy. The population of the United Republic of Tanzania is currently estimated to be about 47.4 million and growing at a rate of 2.7 per cent per annum. The continued high population growth rate has for the past 50 years resulted in a youthful population. The population ..
Status and Progress of Human Development in Zanzibar By Flora Kessy & Mashavu Omar
THDR 2017: Background Paper No. 2 (Published in 2016)
This paper provides an overview of human development in Zanzibar. Human development has been measured using indicators on poverty, longevity of life, knowledge, and health output and outcomes. Data have been drawn mainly from secondary official sources and routine data systems of various ministries, departments and agencies
Social Policy in the Context of Economic Transformation: A Concept Note for Tanzania Human Development Report 2017
The basic design of the new THDR series was that each successive report should always feature a first chapter on ‘The State and Progress of Human Development in Tanzania’, while the remaining chapters of each report would deal with a specific theme, followed by a Statistical Annex that updates the data from report to report. THDR 2014, the first report in this series, dealt with the theme of Economic Transformation for Human Development.full text
National Consultative Workshop on Post MDG Development Agenda: Financing For Development
The objective of the Workshop was to provide a Platform where relevant Stakeholders from both Tanzania Mainland and Zanzibar will sit together and discuss the country’s preparedness on financing of Post 2015 Development Agenda ahead of the 3rd International Conference on financing for Development to be held in Mid July 2015 in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.full text
Status and Progress of Human Development and Implications For Achieving Zanzibar Development Vision 2020 Dr. Flora Kessy and Ms. Mashavu Omar
Zanzibar is an autonomous part of the United Republic of Tanzania and thus its global ranking in terms of Human Development Index (HDI) is reflected by the position occupied by the United Republic of Tanzania. Tanzania is a Low Human Development Country. In the 2013 Human Development Report, Tanzania was ranked 152 out of 186 countries. Tanzania scored HDI of 0.476, which is the same as the average HDI for Sub-Saharan Africa (0.475).1 It is clear from these figures that Tanzania, and thus Zanzibar, has a long way to go in improving its human developmentfull text
Declining Quality of Education: Suggestions for Arresting and Reversing the Trend By Prof. Suleman Sumra and Dr. Joviter K. Katabaro
This paper looks at the issue of falling quality of education in the last two decades. The issue of quality in education is complex and multi-faceted. Quality of education can be looked at from the input, process, output and outcome perspectives. This paper focuses on quality of education from outcome level. We examine quality in terms of learning outcomes among children. Information for the paper was mainly obtained through desk study of various reports and publications. Key individuals were interviewed to get their perspectives on the current situation and ways in which the situation can be rectified.full text
Implications of Health Sector Reforms in Tanzania: Policies, Indicators and Accessibility to Health Services By Prof. Phares G.M. Mujinja and Dr. Tausi M. Kida
Immediately after independence, 1961, the Government aimed at building her human capital by isolating factors that were christened as "major enemies of development": ignorance, diseases, and poverty. Disease as an enemy was fought by a massive increase in health facilities and low primary health care training institutions, most of them owned by the government. Alongside the public sector existed the non-for-profit health facilities, mostly owned by Faith-based Organizations. Tanzania went through full text
Population Growth, Structure and Momentum in Tanzania By Prof. Alfred Agwanda and Prof. Haidari Amani
Despite debates on the linkages between population and development, studies have shown that issues related to population go beyond its size. The inter linkages between components of population such as age, structural composition, density, distribution and its characteristics must be considered in the context of sustainable development and human wellbeing. The sources of components of change are the cornerstone to full text
Managing Natural Resources For Sustainable Growth and Human Development in Tanzania - The Case of Extractive Industry By Dr. Razack Lokina & Prof. Anthony Leiman
Since 2000, mining has been the fastest growing sector in Tanzania with an average annual growth rate of about 15%, the largest recipient of foreign investment, and the largest contributor to the country's exports (accounting for 48.2% of Tanzania's total merchandise exports in 2006, and about 45% in 2011). Tanzania's mineral sector has been broadening its base and expanding its size in recent years, with gold, natural gas, limestone (for quarried for the production full text
What Growth Pattern is Needed to Achieve the Objective of Tanzania's Development Vision-2025? By Dr. Longinus Rutasitara & Dr. Jehovaness Aikaeli
This paper analyzes the growth pattern of Tanzania over the past decade or so (13 years of data points) and makes forward-looking policy options for a faster economic growth. In view of the widely-held notion of a strong two-way relationship between economic growth and human development (Boozer, Ranis, Stewart and Suri, 2003), it is maintained that economic growth can be sustained where human development elements are upgraded, particularly the human capitalfull text
The Nexus Between Human Development and Growth By Dr. Amarakoon Bandara, Prof. Rajeev Dehejia and Mr. Shaheen Lavie-Rouse
Zanzibar is an autonomous part of the United Republic of Tanzania and thus its global ranking in terms of Human Development Index (HDI) is reflected by the position occupied by the United Republic of Tanzania. Tanzania is a Low Human Development Country. In the 2013 Human Development Report, Tanzania was ranked 152 out of 186 countries. Tanzania scored HDI of 0.476, which is the same as the average HDI for Sub-Saharan Africa (0.475).1 It is clear from these figures that Tanzania, and thus Zanzibar, has a long way to go in improving its human development full text
The Changing Economy of Tanzania Patterns of Accumulation and Structural Change By Prof. Marc Wuyts and Dr. Blandina Kilama
This working paper explores past processes of economic transformation in Tanzania, particularly since the economic reforms of the 1980s. The paper start with the premise that it is not sufficient to look at the evolution of the rate of economic growth to assess the macroeconomic performance of the economy, particularly when making inferences about its impact on poverty reduction. What matters as well is the analysis of the changing patterns full text
Economic Transformation in Tanzania: Vicious or Virtuous Circle? By Prof. Marc Wuyts and Dr. Blandina Kilama
In the 2000s, policy discourses on the macroeconomics of development in Tanzania tended to focus quite narrowly on the growth- poverty nexus. The usual argument was that the adoption of certain core macroeconomic policies (the so-called ‘fundamentals’ of low inflation, trade openness, market liberalization, sound financial policies and good governance) would induce full text
Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) Country Briefing: Tanzania
The MPI reflects both the incidence or headcount ratio (H) of poverty – the proportion of the population that is multidimensionally poor – and the average intensity (A) of their poverty – the average proportion of indicators in which poor people are deprived. The MPI is calculated by multiplying the incidence of poverty by the average intensity across full text
Tanzania Human Development Report 2014: Economic Transformation for Human development - CONCEPT NOTE
The objective of this concept note is to inform on the impending THDR 2014: its essence, the process of its preparation and what is to be expected out of it. It serves to inform stakeholders of THDR project on what is involved in producing the report. This information sharing is meant to not only create awareness for stakeholders to eagerly wait for the report but also invite them to engage in its development through a variety of ways. Internally (i.e. within Economic full text
Tanzania Human Development Report 2014: Background Papers
Annotated outline of background papers for Tanzania Human Development Report 2014 full tex
Tanzania Human Development Report : The State of Progress in Human Resource Development
In 1999, the world’s population surpassed six billion people. At the current growth rate, the global workforce will increase from three to almost 4.5 billion people by 2050, over 90% of them will live in developing countries and most of them are likely to have few or no skills. In the world’s 50 poorest nations, the workforce will explode by about 235% over the next 50 years. In Tanzania, which in 1999 ranked 156 out of 174 countries in the Human Development Index (HDI) full text
Zanzibar Human Development Report: Towards Pro Poor Growth
It is now more recognized that GDP is not a sufficient measure of human development, other dimensions of human development such as longevity of life, low morbidity, education and freedom are equally, if not more important, in evaluating human development. Indeed, the self-evident truth that income is just a means rather than the end of development is gaining more practical recognition thanks to among others, the annual global Human Development Reports. full text